An ankle sprain is a ligament injury (of the ligaments) that usually occurs after a sprained ankle. Ankle ligaments are elastic structures that allow the joint to be kept in its correct position. The ligaments, which constitute the lateral stabilizers of the ankle, are mainly responsible for the stability of the joint, namely, in movements at the ends of the joint amplitudes. Under normal conditions, ligaments, as elastic structures that they are, stretch (stretch) to their limit, then return to their initial position.
Sprain occurs when the ligament is forced beyond its normal capacity.
Examples of abnormal movements are twisting of the foot (twisting the foot), rotations and rolling of the foot. This movement can cause the ligaments to stretch (distend or stretch beyond normal, creating problems in their function) or even, in the most severe cases, to rupture (tear).
In most sprains, foot pain, which can be mild to very intense, is immediately felt at the site of the sprain. Often, the ankle starts to “swell” (edema) immediately and local ecchymosis (black ankle) and some joint effusion (fluid in the ankle) may appear. The ankle area is usually sensitive to touch and the pain increases with movement.
In more severe sprains, you can hear and / or feel something “tearing” along with a click. The pain is immediate and strong after the sprain, you will not be able to walk or even exert force on the foot (put your foot on the floor or “step on”). Thus, the greater the pain and the edema (swelling), the more severe the injury and consequently the longer the rehabilitation phase.
The extent of the edema (swelling) and the intensity of the pain in the foot vary in proportion to the severity of the sprain.
The recovery time to heal a sprain can range from weeks to months and depends on the severity of the injury and the treatment instituted. See more information on treatment.
In sports that require sudden movements and extremes of amplitude (football, futsal, basketball, handball, athletics, etc.), sprains can occur more easily. However, sprains can also occur accidentally in day-to-day life, when the person places “badly on the ground”, etc. The use of inappropriate footwear, such as high heels, very wide shoes, among others, can be a risk factor for the occurrence of sprains.
Imbalances are one of the risk factors for ankle sprain. Those who have “weak muscles” and exercise or do physical activity without prior adaptation training are more likely to develop sprains.
Objectives of a rehabilitation program:
Improving mobility and joint movement
Relief from pain and inflammation
General physical reconditioning
Teaching and counselling of support products (orthotics, splints, etc.)
Return to work activities , daily life and sports activities
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