Musculoskeletal pain can be caused by diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, bursae or a combination of these conditions.
Bone pain is usually deep or penetrating. It is usually the result of a traumatic injury. Less frequently it occurs in problems related to protest material, in cases of infection of the bone (osteomyelitis), hormonal disorders and/or tumors.
Muscular pain (known as myalgia) is generally less intense than bone pain, although it can be limiting, especially if it results from a muscle spasm (continuous painful muscle contraction), also known as cramp.
Muscle pain can also be manifested by hardened muscle cords/painful points (trigger points) /, located predominantly in the cervical region, gluten region, and/or pelvic waist.
All of us have latent trigger points that can be activated in case of overload or incorrect posture.
The pain in the tendon and ligament is generally less intense than the bone pain, usually worsens when the affected tendon or ligament are elongated or moved and relieves with rest. The most common injury is sprain.
The pain in the bursae (small bags filled with liquid that provides a protective cushioning of the joints) and a pain that worsens with movement and relieves with rest. It appears in situations of trauma, excessive joint overload, gout or infection.
Joint pain (called arthralgia) may or may not be accompanied by inflammation (called arthritis). Arthritis-related pain can be acute (e.g., when caused by infection, injury or gout) or chronic (e.g., when caused by rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis), although with periods of exacerbation. Other signs/symptoms usually co-exist (heat, swelling and redness). Sometimes the pain originates in structures close to the joint, such as ligaments, tendons and bursa.
Fibromyalgia pain is a generalized pain with hypersensitivity to the palpation of specific painful points (muscles, tendons or ligaments). It is also accompanied by other symptoms such as: general fatigue, poor quality sleep, among others.
Sometimes, a pain that appears to be musculoskeletal is actually caused by a disease in another organic system. For example, shoulder pain can be caused by a disorder that affects the lungs, spleen, or gall bladder. Back pain can be caused by a kidney stone, abdominal aortic aneurysm, inflammation of the pancreas, or, in women, by pelvic disorders. Arm pain may be associated with a heart attack (myocardial infarction).