Backache, commonly known as spinal pain, is a quite frequent complaint and one of the main reasons for absenteeism from work in our country. More than 80% of the population suffers from backache, at least once in their lives, especially between the ages of 40 and 60, mainly as a result of excessive effort, forced postures, repeated movements, etc. Fortunately, it is possible to take measures to prevent most back pain and undergo specific treatments to improve the quality of life.
The causes are very varied and, consequently, the respective medical approach. Among the most common are mechanical as well as inflammatory pains. Both have their own specificities (they affect sleep, the ability to work as well as interfere with social life).
Cervical pain is the pain that we feel in the upper region of the spine, sometimes located on the shoulders / neck, and may radiate to the head (headache). It is a pain often associated with posture, and for this reason, often observed in young people in the active phase. Cervical pain can be caused by vertebral pathology and / or intervertebral discs, or it can simply be a muscle problem.
When this pain radiates to the upper limbs, it is called cervicobrachialgia, usually associated with a compression of the spinal nerve. In these cases, there may be a sensation of tingling or loss of sensation, as well as, in more serious cases, loss of strength in the upper limbs.
The dorsal pain or dorsalgia, is located in the middle region of the back and may irradiate the lumbar or cervical spine. It can also cause a fracture or collapse of the vertebral body, appearing after a fall or in people with decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis).
It is the pathology that we treat most frequently in our clinic, and is one of the most frequent causes of absenteeism at work. Lumbar pain has many causes, the most frequent being herniated discs, joint/facet wear or narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal. When this pain extends to the lower extremities, we speak of lumbociatalgia, also commonly known as sciatica pain.
Sacroiliac joint Pain
We talk about sacroiliac pain and localized pain in the buttocks. This pain is usually caused by the involvement of the sacroiliac joints (union between the sacrum and both iliac bones). Patients who suffer from this pathology usually also report discomfort in the groin area, or in the lower extremities. It is a pain that interferes with long positions maintained, such as sitting.
Sacroiliac joint Pain
Disc hernias result from the fact that intervertebral discs, like all tissues in the body, are subject to aging phenomena, losing their elasticity and the ability to absorb the physical forces acting on them. The first signs of degeneration are the loss of water and consequent dehydration of the nucleus of the intervertebral disc. Later, disc protrusions may appear in the epidural canal, fissures of the fibrous ring with loss of disc content, or real ruptures or herniated discs. The mechanical pressure of the disc on the adjacent spinal nerves can cause pain along the upper or lower limbs, depending on whether the injury is cervical or lumbar. Sometimes the contents of the disc can trigger an inflammatory process in the spinal nerves causing irritation and pain.
Sciatica pain corresponds to the presence of pain, tingling, weakness or numbness that originate in the lower back, go down the gluteal region to the posterior portion of the loss, following the path of the sciatic nerve.
Sciatica is more common in middle age, rarely occurring before age 20.
In general, the evolution is favorable but in about 30% of the cases the symptoms last 1 year or more.
Most cases result from a herniated intervertebral disc that compresses a nerve root. Other possible causes are tightening of the canal surrounding the spinal cord, tumors or cysts that compress nerve roots.
About 80 to 90% of sciatica cases resolve without surgery and about half of the attacks last less than six weeks.
Lumbar canal stenosis
Pain due to lumbar canal stenosis often appears along the lower limbs during walking. It results from degenerative changes in the intervertebral discs, the articular facets, the yellow ligament, or the narrowing of the vertebral cane. The pain or discomfort disappears at rest, although it causes a significant limitation of the patient's autonomy; in advanced stages it can prevent walking completely.
Objectives of a rehabilitation program:
Improving mobility and joint movement
Relief from pain and inflammation
Stabilization of spine static and dynamics
General physical reconditioning
Improvement of gait, balance and coordination
Teaching and counselling of support products (orthotics, splints, etc.)
Return to work activities , daily life and sports activities
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